Biographies, biographers, and interesting people

Posts tagged ‘writing’

What’s in a Name?

I was not prepared many years ago when the publisher of my first book asked me what name I wanted to appear on the cover. To tell the truth, I was just excited about finally getting published. I had never given any thought to the name on the cover. But since the editor asked, I figured it deserved some consideration.

I briefly thought about using my maiden name, writing as Barbara Lynch Kramer, but I’ve always had trouble finding books written by authors who use three names. I forget the order of their names and don’t know what to type in for the search. I also toyed with the idea of using my middle initial – Barbara A. Kramer. I don’t remember why I didn’t go in that direction. I guess I just figured it wasn’t necessary. After all, how many authors would be named Barbara Kramer? Turns out there are at least three. Nampeyo and Her Pottery by Barbara Kramer was published in 1996. That was soon followed by The Bud Wilson Dream Book by another Barbara Kramer.

Those books made me regret that I had not put more thought into what name I would use, but by that time, I had a couple more books out and I figured it was too late change my name. If I did, people might think my first books were written by someone else. So I continued writing as Barbara Kramer and told myself it wouldn’t be a problem. After all, Nampeyo and Her Pottery is a very specialized book about a Hopi-Tewa potter named Nampeyo. The Bud Wilson Dream Book is a novel for adults. Both are completely different than my biographies for children and young adults. There shouldn’t be any confusion, I reasoned. Except, there was.

People who create lists of books showed Nampeyo and Her Pottery as one of mine. I contacted those people and explained that I didn’t write it. Hopefully, they made the correction on their lists because I try hard not to take credit for what other authors have done.

I ran into another problem with my name a couple of weeks ago when I decided to finally set up an author’s page on Amazon. I’m not the most technically gifted person, so I was very pleased with myself when I finally got a page set up with my books on it and even a link to my blog. That is until I decided to test it. I typed my name into Amazon’s search and came up with a listing of my books. However, the link to my author’s page was not there. Instead, there was a link to an author’s page for Barbara J. Kramer, who apparently does not exist. When I went to her page all that was listed was two books, The Bud Wilson Dream Book and my biography about Alexander Graham Bell.

I contacted Amazon and their technical department solved the problem. But the experience left me wishing, once again, that I had given more thought to the question my first editor asked: What name do you want to go on the cover?

 

The Upside of Failure

Walt DisneyOne thing I enjoy about writing biographies for children is exploring the way my subjects handle obstacles and failures. What I find especially interesting is how many times failure leads to something better. Walt Disney is an example.

Disney failed several times on his road to success. As a young man living in Kansas City, he started his own business called Laugh-O-Gram films. He made short films based on fairy tales changing them to make the films funny. Those cartoons were shown in theaters before the main feature. Disney worked hard, but he did not make enough money to stay afloat. He closed his business and packed everything he owned into one suitcase. With a train ticket and $40 in his pocket, he headed to California.

He hoped to find work as an actor there, but when no one hired him, he went back to drawing cartoons. He teamed up with his brother Roy to start a new business making cartoons. One day the distributor of his short films hired Disney to create a new character. Disney developed Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. The new cartoons were a great success, so successful that the distributor got greedy. He decided he would make the Oswald cartoons himself. There was nothing Disney could do about it because the distributor owned the character. To make matters worse, the distributor convinced Disney’s cartoonists to leave Disney and work for him.

Disney had lost the character he created and his cartoonists, but he could not dwell on his loss. He had a studio to run, and the only way he could keep it going was to create a new character. That’s when he came up with the idea of a cheerful mouse with large ears. The rest, as they say, is history.

Another example is Oprah Winfrey. In 1977, she was failing as a reporter and co-anchor of the evening news at a television station in Baltimore. The problem was Oprah just wanting to be herself when she read the news. She sometimes changed the words to a story to make it sound like the way she talked. If she made a mistake, such as pronouncing a word wrong, she laughed. The station manager wanted her to be more serious in reading the news.

Oprah also showed her emotions on the air. One time when she had to interview a woman who had lost her children in a fire, Oprah cried. If a story made her angry, it showed. The station manager said she needed to be objective. Oprah was taken off the evening news and began doing short reports on the morning news. It was a stressful time and Oprah worried that she might lose her job. Things changed with the arrival of a new station manager. He started a morning talk show called People Are Talking and made Oprah the co-host. Oprah knew from the beginning that she had found her calling. “This is what I was born to do,” she said after the first show. “This is like breathing.” If she had not failed as a news anchor, The Oprah Winfrey Show may never have been born.

I could go on with other examples. The people I’ve written about have shown again and again that failure is not the end. It could very well be the first step towards something better. I hope the kids who read my books see that truth and remember it when they feel they have failed.

Five Things about Lin-Manuel Miranda

My biography, Lin-Manuel Miranda Award-Winning Musical Writer, was released this month. My initial interest in Miranda was because of his great success with the Broadway musical Hamilton. I was curious about Miranda and his writing. I wondered why he wrote a musical about our Founding Fathers and cast African American actors in the roles of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Miranda, who is of Puerto Rican descent, played the role of Alexander Hamilton. As I began my research, I quickly discovered that getting to know more about Miranda was a lot of fun. Here are five of my favorite tidbits from my research.

Miranda didn’t like piano lessons. He began taking lessons when he was six, but he did not stick with it. He didn’t like to practice. Turns out, piano lessons were not necessary because Miranda can play by ear. He can hear a song and then sit down and play it without seeing the music.

But he did like applause. Miranda performed in a piano recital when he was about seven. When he finished his song, the audience applauded. Miranda like that attention so much, that he played another song and then another. After his fourth song, the teacher nudged Miranda off the bench to give the other students a chance.

Miranda got his first acting role in sixth grade. He played rock star Conrad Birdie in the musical Bye Bye Birdie. All the girls had to pretend to faint when he walked on stage in his shiny gold jacket. That was heady stuff for a 12-year-old who was shorter than most of the girls he knew and pretty much off their radar.

Miranda writes and then rewrites, rewrites, and rewrites. He wrote his first play, In the Heights, when he was in college. Eight years later, it opened at 37 Arts Theatre in New York, and a little over a year later, it opened on Broadway. Getting a play he wrote in college ready for a New York stage took a lot of rewriting. By the time Miranda was finished, all that was left of the original musical was a few notes from the first song.

He wrote several songs for The Electric Company, a children’s show on PBS. One song featured a rap battle between a very negative apple and an optimist hot dog. Miranda appeared on the show as the hot dog, who countered the negative words spewed out by the apple with positive words. You can watch that video here.

As for Miranda’s casting decisions for Hamilton, he said he wanted people to feel that everyone is part of the United States even if they do not look like the Founding Fathers. Miranda has a lot to say about immigration, and that was another reason I wanted to write about him. I’m hoping my biography about Miranda plays at least a small part in getting kids to talk about immigration. They are important conversations to have, now more than ever.

After the First Draft

I finally finished the first draft. My sigh of relief as I typed that final paragraph could be heard across three states. The writing is in sorry shape, but that’s okay. I’m just happy to be moving on to the rewrite, the part I love.

One thing I’ll be working on is cutting. I need to delete about 1,000 words to get the manuscript down to the 8,000 word limit for the series. It could be worse, in fact, it has been. There are times when I’ve had to cut manuscripts by half. I don’t mind because what I end up with is a tighter, more focused piece.

As I wrote in my previous post, I’ve struggled with finding the focus of this book. The one-sentence summary of what is important about my subject has been elusive. The answer finally came to me when I was having lunch with a friend. We chatted about our current writing projects, and the conversation came around to the things I like about my subject. As I explained what I admire most about my subject, it came to me. I realized mid-sentence that I was actually talking about what needed to be the focus of the biography. Knowing the focus makes cutting easy because I can delete the parts that don’t support that main idea.

I’ll also be taking another look at problem paragraphs. Sometimes I work hard on a paragraph, but no matter what I do, it doesn’t sound right. I’ve learned there are a couple of reasons for that. Either the paragraph is in the wrong place, or it doesn’t belong in the book at all.

Rewriting also involves smoothing and polishing, finding just the right words to convey an idea. I need to think about energy too, using the active rather than the passive voice and choosing strong action verbs.

Finally, I need to lower the reading level a bit. That means dividing some longer sentences into shorter ones. I’ll also replace some difficult words with easier ones that have fewer syllables.

It’s a lot to think about, but I love rewriting because that’s when the book really takes shape. And that’s satisfying. As the George Peppard character on The A-Team used to say, “I love it when a plan comes together.”

Wrestling with a First Draft

As I’m nearing the end of another first draft, I’m reminded of how messy they can be. “Don’t worry about first drafts,” experienced writers advise. “The most important thing is to just get something down on paper. Allow yourself to write crap.”

I follow that advice. Yet what always astonishes me is how hard it is to get that crap down on paper. One thing that helps me is to set daily word goals. I most often set a goal of 500 words a day. It’s a word count I can reach with minimal hair pulling, and many times I surpass it. After all, the hardest part is just getting myself to the computer. Knowing I can quit after 500 words makes the whole process seem doable.

Unfortunately, the last couple of weeks, I’ve had to set a much lower goal in order to lure myself to the computer. So I set a goal of 200 words a day. That only worked a few days and then I came to a complete stop. I soon realized why.

First, I don’t have a clear focus for the book. I need to be able to tell in a single sentence what is important about the subject of my book. Usually, I have that sentence clearly in mind before I start writing. But with this book, I’m on the last chapter of my first draft and I still don’t have a clue. I’ve had trouble making that decision because the subject has had so many accomplishments and she continues to achieve.

Second, I’m not sure of what I want to include in the final chapter. That indicates a problem with my research. Fortunately, I’ve come up with a plan to get back on track.

First, since this book is part of a series, I’ll read other books in the series. Then I’ll try to tell in one sentence what those books are about. It should give me a clearer idea of the focus for my book because reading what others have done is always a big help.

Second, I’ll go back to the research. Nine times out of ten, when I get “stuck” with my writing it’s an indication that I don’t have enough information. I need to dig deeper.

Finally, I’ll keep reminding myself to relax and just do the best I can on the first draft. After all, what follows is the rewrite, and that’s the part I love.

Four Tips for Using Quotes

Quotes add punch to biographies for children and that helps to hold the readers’ attention. However, simply inserting a quote here or there does not make the writing interesting. It’s important to know when to use quotes and how to make them fit into the flow of the writing. Here are 4 tips for using quotes effectively.

  1. Use quotes when the person you’re writing about says it better than you could in your own words.

That was something I learned by chance when I was working on my very first biography which was about Alice Walker. I wanted to describe the day in 1961 when Walker left her small town in Georgia to head off to college. She took a bus to Atlanta, where the college was located, and made the mistake of sitting too close to the front. A white woman complained to the driver who asked Alice to move to the back.

I worked and worked on that paragraph trying to find a way to show how Walker felt about that experience, but I only got more and more frustrated. I finally realized it was impossible for me to describe how she felt. It was better to let her say it in her own powerful words: “But even as I moved, in confusion and anger and tears. I knew he had not seen the last of me,” Walker wrote in her book In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens.

  1. Use quotes to show character.

In The Great and Only Barnum, Candace Fleming used a quote from P.T. Barnum to show his aversion to farm work as a child. “I always disliked work,” he noted. “Head-work I was excessively fond of. I was always ready to concoct fun, or lay plans for money-making, but hand-work was decidedly not in my line.” It’s easy to see how Barnum’s gift for thinking up ideas for fun and profit as a kid may have led to his future as a great showman.

  1. Use quotes to build or expand on an idea.

In an article about how U.S. presidents kept fit while they were in office, I wrote this paragraph about Truman. “Harry S. Truman was famous for his early morning walks. Reporters and photographers sometimes tagged along, but keeping up with him was not easy. Truman kept a brisk and exact pace.” That provided the basic information, but I decided to show how brisk and how exact by ending with this quote from Truman’s memoirs: “I walk two miles most every morning at a hundred and twenty-eight steps a minute,” he noted. The quote also showed a bit about his character.

  1. Keep quotes short.

Think of quotes as dialogue in a story. Readers lose focus if a character rambles on too long. So it’s best to interrupt the dialogue with action or another character’s comments. It’s the same with nonfiction. A good way to keep quotes short is to weave in background information and then end with a short quote. It’s what I did with the paragraph about Alice Walker heading off to college. A long description of that day in Walker’s own words would have taken away from what I felt was a strong quote. So I provided the background about her sitting too close to the front of the bus and the white woman complaining to the driver. Then I ended with Walker’s words.

Finding just the right quotes and weaving them into a manuscript is hard work, but it’s worth the effort. They can turn a dull manuscript into one that holds the readers’ attention.

How I Found My Writing Niche

The subtitle for this post could be: How a Second Grade Boy Helped Me Launch My Writing Career. I’ve said many times that I started writing biographies after following the advice of another author who said, “Write what you like to read.” I remembered how much I enjoyed reading biographies when I was a kid especially stories about trailblazers such as Davy Crockett, Daniel Boone, and Elizabeth Blackwell. But the truth is, it took me a long time before I considered writing any type of nonfiction. It was a second grade boy who set me on that track.

Like most beginning writers, I dreamed of writing fiction, particularly the mysteries and ghost stories I loved to read. Mary Downing Hahn’s Wait ‘Til Helen Comes remains one of my all-time favorite books. Joan Lowery Nixon and Lois Duncan were my idols. For years, I ignored the fact that there were more opportunities for writers in nonfiction. That’s because editors are always looking for nonfiction, but most writers want to write fiction.

My change in attitude came when I was working as a media secretary at an elementary school. Seated at my desk, I watched as a class of second graders hurried into the IMC for checkout time. My favorite part of the job was when students asked me to help them find a book. I was not disappointed on that day as a smiling young man approached the desk.

“Can you help me find a book?” he asked.

“Sure, what kind of books do you like to read?”

“Good books,” he said.

That was my cue to recommend what I thought were good books. “Have you read any of the Henry and Mudge books?” I asked. But they did not appeal to him. I recommended a couple of other possibilities from the fiction section, as I assumed that’s what he would want to read.

Then he surprised me. “No, I want real books,” he said.

“What do you mean real books?”

“You know, true stories,” he answered.

“Oh, you mean nonfiction.”

“Yeah, real books with facts and stuff.”

It didn’t take long to find him enough books in the nonfiction section to keep him busy for a while. I soon realized that there were many other kids like him, kids who liked nonfiction. They wanted to read about dinosaurs, sports stars, bugs, unusual buildings, airplanes, and faraway places, almost any subject imaginable.

For the next few days, I thought about that student and noticed how many other kids asked to be directed to the nonfiction section. I also thought about the author who advised me to “write what you like to read.” It soon became clear to me that I should be writing real books, in my case, biographies. Once I focused on biographies, the publishing doors started to open. I had found what I was meant to write, and I thank that second grade boy for setting me on that path.

 

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